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When a key is pressed, one or more rotors rotate on the spindle.
On the sides of the rotors are a series of electrical contacts that, after rotation, line up with contacts on the other rotors or fixed wiring on either end of the spindle.
The French spy, Hans-Thilo Schmidt, with access to German cipher materials that included the daily keys used in September and October 1932. The French passed the material to the Poles, and Rejewski used some of that material and the message traffic in September and October to solve for the unknown rotor wiring.
Consequently, the Polish mathematicians were able to build their own Enigma machines, which were called Enigma doubles.
The Polish Cipher Bureau developed techniques to defeat the plugboard and find all components of the daily key, which enabled the Cipher Bureau to read the Germans' Enigma messages.
The greyed-out lines are other possible paths within each rotor; these are hard-wired from one side of each rotor to the other.
The letter A encrypts differently with consecutive key presses, first to G, and then to C.
Enigma wiring diagram with arrows and the numbers 1 to 9 showing how current flows from key depression to a lamp being lit. D yields A, but A never yields A; this property was due to a patented feature unique to the Enigmas, and could be exploited by cryptanalysts in some situations.
The mechanical parts act in such a way as to form a varying electrical circuit.
The Enigma machines were a series of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial, diplomatic and military communication.